Sexual Orientation & Gender Identity

Source Sheet

Basic sources addressing reproduction and sexual morality

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When [David] finished speaking with Saul, Jonathan’s soul became bound up with the soul of David; Jonathan loved David as himself. Saul took him [into his service] that day and would not let him return to his father’s house. Jonathan and David made a pact because [Jonathan] loved him as himself. Jonathan took off the cloak and tunic he was wearing and gave them to David, together with his sword, bow, and belt. [Translation by Rabbi Steven Greenberg]

א וַיְהִי, כְּכַלֹּתוֹ לְדַבֵּר אֶל-שָׁאוּל, וְנֶפֶשׁ יְהוֹנָתָן, נִקְשְׁרָה בְּנֶפֶשׁ דָּוִד; ויאהבו (וַיֶּאֱהָבֵהוּ) יְהוֹנָתָן, כְּנַפְשׁוֹ. ב וַיִּקָּחֵהוּ שָׁאוּל, בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא; וְלֹא נְתָנוֹ, לָשׁוּב בֵּית אָבִיו. ג וַיִּכְרֹת יְהוֹנָתָן וְדָוִד, בְּרִית, בְּאַהֲבָתוֹ אֹתוֹ, כְּנַפְשׁוֹ. ד וַיִּתְפַּשֵּׁט יְהוֹנָתָן, אֶת-הַמְּעִיל אֲשֶׁר עָלָיו, וַיִּתְּנֵהוּ, לְדָוִד; וּמַדָּיו, וְעַד-חַרְבּוֹ וְעַד-קַשְׁתּוֹ וְעַד-חֲגֹרוֹ.

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Saul became angry with Jonathan and said to him: You perverse and rebellious son! I know that you have chosen the son of Jesse to your own shame and the shame of your mother’s nakedness! [Translation by Rabbi Steven Greenberg]

וַיִּחַר-אַף שָׁאוּל, בִּיהוֹנָתָן, וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ, בֶּן-נַעֲוַת הַמַּרְדּוּת: הֲלוֹא יָדַעְתִּי, כִּי-בֹחֵר אַתָּה לְבֶן-יִשַׁי, לְבָשְׁתְּךָ, וּלְבֹשֶׁת עֶרְוַת אִמֶּךָ.

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Just as the lad had gone, David arose from the mound and fell on his face to the ground and bowed three times, and each man kissed the other and wept for the other; though David the longer. [Translation by Rabbi Steven Greenberg}

הַנַּעַר, בָּא, וְדָוִד קָם מֵאֵצֶל הַנֶּגֶב, וַיִּפֹּל לְאַפָּיו אַרְצָה וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים; וַיִּשְּׁקוּ אִישׁ אֶת-רֵעֵהוּ, וַיִּבְכּוּ אִישׁ אֶת-רֵעֵהוּ, עַד-דָּוִד, הִגְדִּיל.

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How the mighty have fallen! In the thick of battle—Jonathan, slain on your heights! I grieve for you, my brother Jonathan. You were most dear to me. Your love was wonderful to me, More than the love of women. [Translation by Rabbi Steven Greenberg]

כה אֵיךְ נָפְלוּ גִבֹּרִים, בְּתוֹךְ הַמִּלְחָמָה--יְהוֹנָתָן, עַל-בָּמוֹתֶיךָ חָלָל. כו צַר-לִי עָלֶיךָ, אָחִי יְהוֹנָתָן--נָעַמְתָּ לִּי, מְאֹד; נִפְלְאַתָה אַהֲבָתְךָ לִי, מֵאַהֲבַת נָשִׁים.

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Then the man who lay with her shall give to the girl’s father fifty shekels of silver, and she shall be his wife; because he has humbled her, he may not put her away all his days.
[Translation by Rabbi Steve Greenberg]

כִּי-יִמְצָא אִישׁ, נַעֲרָ בְתוּלָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא-אֹרָשָׂה, וּתְפָשָׂהּ, וְשָׁכַב עִמָּהּ; וְנִמְצָאוּ.

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A woman may not dress in a man’s apparel, nor shall a man wear women’s clothing; for doing these things is abhorrent to the Lord your God.
[Translation Rabbi Steve Greenberg]

לֹא-יִהְיֶה כְלִי-גֶבֶר עַל-אִשָּׁה, וְלֹא-יִלְבַּשׁ גֶּבֶר שִׂמְלַת אִשָּׁה: כִּי תוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ, כָּל-עֹשֵׂה אֵלֶּה.

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You shall not sow your vineyard with different seeds; lest the fruit of your seed which you have sown, and the fruit of your vineyard, be defiled.
[Translation by Rabbi Steve Greenberg]

לֹא-תִזְרַע כַּרְמְךָ, כִּלְאָיִם:פֶּן-תִּקְדַּשׁ, הַמְלֵאָה הַזֶּרַע אֲשֶׁר תִּזְרָע, וּתְבוּאַת, הַכָּרֶם.

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No Israelite woman shall be a female prostitute (k’deshah), nor shall any Israelite man be a male prostitute (kadesh). [Translation by Rabbi Steven Greenberg]

לֹא-תִהְיֶה קְדֵשָׁה, מִבְּנוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל; וְלֹא-יִהְיֶה קָדֵשׁ, מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל.

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There is to be no kadeshah among the daughters of Israel, nor a kadesh among the sons of Israel.
[Translation by Rabbi Steve Greenberg]

לֹא-תִהְיֶה קְדֵשָׁה, מִבְּנוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל; וְלֹא-יִהְיֶה קָדֵשׁ, מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל.

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